Espresso cut with very hot water to fill a 6-oz cup.
A chocolate cafe latte, often topped with whipped cream.
A mild stimulant contained in coffee. Robusta has high caffeine levels. The human body can absorb only 300 milligrams of caffeine at a given time., additional amounts being cast off without providing additional stimulation. The human body dissipates 20% of the caffeine in the system each hour.
Named after the Capuchin monks, an Italian Catholic order, because the drink’s cap of foam resembles the monks’ hooded robes in shape and color. A cappuccino is an espresso with frothed milk spooned on top, to cap the drink and retain heat.
Beans that have been dipped in sugar, dextrin syrup, or molasses before roasting.
C02 Process (or Carbon Dioxide process)
The CO2 decaffeination process involves bathing green coffee beans in highly compressed carbon dioxide (CO2), the same naturally occurring substance that plants consume and human beings produce. In its compressed form, the carbon dioxide behaves partly like a gas and partly like a liquid, and has the property of combining selectively with caffeine. The caffeine is stripped from the C02 by means of activated charcoal filters.
A creosol or burnt taste caused by volatile compounds, often found in coffee’s aftertaste.
The unpleasant sour sensation on the posterior sides of the tongue, caused by alkaloids and salts.
Paper-like fragments of the silverskin that remain on beans after processing, that fly off during roasting.
An aroma reminiscent of unsweetened chocolate, created by a moderately volatile set of pyrazine compounds.
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A taste without off-flavor.
Coffee comes from the 60 or so species identified to date of the Coffea genus of the Rubiaceae family. Caffea Arabica is the most important commercial coffee, followed by Coffea canephora or Robusta coffee, Coffea liberica or Liberica coffee and Coffea dewevrei or Excelsa coffee.
Coffee is primarily grown in tropical countries, with its different species requiring different conditions. Arabica thrives best at hilly elevations between 700 and 1,700 meters and temperatures between 15-24° C. Robusta grows at elevations between 200 meters and 800 meters, and much warmer temperatures, 24°C to 30°C. All coffee varieties require abundant rainfall: 1,500 mm to 3,000 mm annually, depending on soil conditions.
Coffee plants in the wild grow as shrubs or trees to a height of 10 meters to 15 meters, and can live for 60 years. In plantations, they are kept at three meters to enable harvesting, and remain productive for 15 to 20 years.
A mainstay of the country’s economy since the 1870s, Colombia produces 12% of the world’s coffee, second only to Brazil. Coffee is Colombia’s second largest legal export after oil, employing 1 million people of the nation’s 40 million people.
Peasants grow the coffee at high altitudes in three mountain ranges, called cordilleras, that trisect Colombia from north to south.
The central and eastern cordilleras produce the best coffee. In the central cordillera, well known coffees are Medellin, Armenia, and Manizales, named after the cities in which they are marketed. Medellin, the best known of the three, has a rich flavor, balanced acidity and a heavier body than less acidic Armenia and Manizales. The three coffees are often marketed together as MAM.
In the eastern cordillera, Bogota and Bucaramanga are the chief coffee centers. Bogota contains less acid but is as rich as Medellin. Bucaramanga is rich in body and flavor with a low level of acid.
Colombia’s coffees are processed using the wet method. Colombian Fair Trade Organic
COOCAFE, Costa Rica’s only certified Fair Trade Coffee Cooperative, was founded in 1988 with support of the German government. COOCAFE works to benefit 3500 coffee growers in nine co-operatives in the country’s rural areas. The average farm is 1.3 hectares. COOCAFE has participated in the Fair Trade Market as well as in the Conventional Market. Its cooperatives have funded projects such as credit for housing, land reform, and the repair and construction of municipal infrastructure. COOCAFE and its cooperatives have also established two foundations, Hijos del Campo and Foundation Café Forestal.
A caramel-colored foam that appears on the surface of a freshly brewed espresso. The crema helps retain the espresso’s flavors and aromas. Crema comes of colloids and lipids forced out into an emulsion under the espresso machine’s pressure.
The Spanish custom of drinking chocolate permeated Cuba’s culture until coffee supplanted chocolate and helped define Cuban nationality.
Although traders first brought coffee to Cuba in 1748 from Santo Domingo, it wasn’t exploited commercially for another half-century, when French settlers fleeing Haiti’s revolution arrived in Cuba. By 1827, Cuba had more than 2,000 coffee plantations.
Cuba generally produces some 18,000 tons of coffee, with 16,000 tons coming from eastern Cuba. The central provinces produced around 1,500 tons, while Pinar del Rio province in the extreme west accounted for the remaining 500 tons. Coffee no longer grows in the deforested and exhausted soils in the plains and hills around Havana.
Cuba exports 60% to 70% of its coffee crop, with the top importers, Japan and France, purchasing about 5,000 and 2,500 tons respectively. The U.S. has not imported any Cuban coffee since the Kennedy administration imposed an economic blockade in 1962.
Cup of Joe
In outlawing alcohol on board ships in 1913, U.S. Navy Secretary Josephus Daniels made coffee the beverage of service on the ships, hence the term “Cup of Joe.” Sailors wanting their coffee hot asked for a “hot cup of joe,” shortened to hot joe, then hojo.
A term for tasting coffee. Analogous to wine tasting.
Coffee cupping systematically evaluates the aroma, taste, and body of a sample of coffee beans. Cuppers look for characteristics in the taste and aroma of the coffee sample that determine its worth, or if it has been tainted through poor processing.
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